domingo, 3 de junio de 2012

LA CIVILIZACIÓN AZTECA

Ver anterior: SOCIEDADES AMERICANAS ANTES DE LA CONQUISTA

MESOAMERICA

Es la región del continente americano que comprende la mitad meridional (sur) de México; los territorios de Guatemala, El Salvador y Belice; así como el occidente de Honduras, Nicaragua y Costa Rica. Mesoamérica es un área definida por su cultura que fue el producto de una gran diversidad étnica y lingüística.

Desde el punto de vista cultural mesoamérica se divide en siete regiones de acuerdo a las etnias que los ocuparon. La historia de los primeros asentamientos se remonta al 2.500 a. C. Desde entonces hasta 1519 fue uno de los más importantes focos de civilización de la humanidad
Areas culturales de Mesoamerica
Una de las áreas más importantes durante la historia prehispánica fue la que se conoce como Centro de México. Desde el siglo IX a.C. el eje del poder se concentró en esta región, en ella florecieron y cayeron poderosos estados.

EL Imperio Azteca

A comienzos del siglo XIV los Mexicas o Aztecas, un grupo venido del norte, se instalaron en esta región. En el año 1325 fundaron su capital, Tenochtitlán, y desde allí mediante conquistas y alianzas militares lograron controlar un extenso territorio.

Centro ceremonial de Tenochtitlán

Los mexicas fueron una sociedad muy  jerarquizada diferenciada en dos grupos sociales. Los pilli o nobles formaban el grupo privilegiado. Eran los sacerdotes, los guerreros y los funcionarios de gobierno. Poseían la propiedad de la mayoría de las tierras, no pagaban ningún tipo de tributo (por el contrario se beneficiaban de ellos) y controlaban el Estado. A este grupo pertenecía el emperador o Tlatoani.
Tenochtitlán

Los macehuales o trabajadores comunes constituían la mayor parte de la población y formaban el grupo de los no privilegiados. Eran los campesinos, los comerciantes y los artesanos de las ciudades. Debían entregar tributos al Estado en alimentos y trabajo. La entrega de una parte de lo que producían aseguraba la alimentación de los sacerdotes, funcionarios y el emperador. Tenían la obligación de trabajar en la construcción de edificios y templos pertenecientes a la nobleza.

En esta sociedad también había esclavos, personas que habían contraído deudas o cometido delitos menores. También los prisioneros de
guerra eran esclavizados y se utilizaban para sacrificios humanos.

Cultivo en chinampas
La agricultura fue la base de la economía azteca, y el maíz, la calabaza y el poroto, los cultivos más importantes. La geografía determinó las técnicas agrícolas que debían utilizar. La técnica de las chinampas (balsas con tierra que flotaban en los lagos y sobre las cuales se cultivaba) era las más utilizada.  

El comercio también era una actividad muy extendida. Intercambiaban productos, como el cacao, gemas, algodón o preciosas plumas, con pueblos de diferentes regiones.La actividad de los comerciantes no sólo tenía valor económico sino también importancia estratégica, ya que actuaban como espías del estado.

Quetzalcoatl
El Estado azteca fue un imperio teocrático, el emperador era considerado de origen divino, tenía poder absoluto y  hereditario.  Los sacerdotes tenían a su cargo la preparación de las ceremonias religiosas y de los juegos rituales, también se ocupaban de controlar el cumplimiento de las normas y de hacer justicia. A los traidores, homicidas y violadores se los castigaba con la pena de muerte.

Los funcionarios dependían directamente del emperador, controlaban y centralizaban el almacenamiento de los productos recaudados en concepto de tributos y, en épocas de malas cosechas o de guerras, distribuían entre la población una parte de los bienes almacenados.

 
Escultura de Guerrero
Azteca

La religión era politeísta y formaba parte de cada momento de la vida de este pueblo, las conquistas las hacían en nombre de sus dioses y en su nombre también realizaban sacrificios humanos. Quetzacoátl, la serpiente emplumada, era uno de los dioses principales de los aztecas.

El Imperio azteca tuvo una importante fuerza militar con la que logró una gran expansión territorial. .Mediante guerras de conquista conseguían nuevos territorios y poblaciones que brindaban tributos.

La máxima extensión de los dominios se produjo en tiempos de Moctezuma, el último emperador azteca, hasta la llegada de los españoles.

Ver sguiente: EL IMPERIO INCA

                                                                                                                                          


ACTIVIDAD: La Civilización Azteca

  • Organiza en un cuadro las características sociales, políticas y económicas del Imperio Azteca.



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